epic tiger shark diving expeditions
cites sharks and rays

Sharks and rays high on CITES #CoP17 agenda | CITES

CITES regulates international trade in over 35,000 species of plants and animals, including their products and derivatives, ensuring their survival in the wild with benefits for the livelihoods of local people and the global environment. The CITES permit system seeks to ensure that international trade in listed species is sustainable, legal and traceable.

Press Release

Geneva 16 September 2016: South Africa, home to one quarter of the world’s 400+ shark species, will this month host the triennial meeting of the World Wildlife Conference where strengthened protection for sharks and rays will again be high on the agenda.

Delegates from over 180 countries attending the meeting – also known as CITES #CoP17 – will receive updates on actions taken following CoP16 in Bangkok, where five shark species, namely the oceanic white tip, porbeagle and three species of hammerhead, and all manta rays were given protection under CITES Appendix II, with trade in these species now being regulated to prevent over-exploitation.

At CITES #CoP17 Parties will be asked to consider three more proposals to bring sharks and rays under CITES trade controls, namely to include:

  • Silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis in Appendix II
  • Thresher sharks Alopias spp. in Appendix II
  • Devil rays Mobula spp. in Appendix II

Read the press release here: Sharks and rays high on CITES #CoP17 agenda | CITES

 

shark meat and fin toxins

Shark Fins & Meat Contain High Levels of Neurotoxins

shark meat fins neurotoxins

In a new study, University of Miami (UM) scientists found high concentrations of toxins linked to neurodegenerative diseases in the fins and muscles of 10 species of sharks. The research team suggests that restricting consumption of sharks can have positive health benefits for consumers and for shark conservation, since several of the sharks analyzed in the study are threatened with extinction due to overfishing.

The species sampled for this study were the:

  • Blacknose shark (Carharhinus acronotus)
  • Blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus)
  • Bonnethead shark (Sphyrna tiburo)
  • Bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas)
  • Great Hammerhead shark (Sphyrna mokarran)
  • Lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris)
  • Nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirraum)
  • Atlantic Sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae)
  • Smooth Hammerhead shark (Sphyrna zygaena)
  • Tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier)

The two toxins analyzed were Mercury and β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) which have been linked in recent studies to both Alzheimer’s disease and ALS.

Find the full article and link to the scientific publication here: Study Finds Shark Fins & Meat Contain High Levels of Neurotoxins Linked to Alzheimer’s Disease | The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami

silky shark oceanic whitetip shark

Pew Applauds Expansion of Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

The Pew Charitable Trusts joins partners in Hawaii and the scientific community in praising today’s announcement by President Barack Obama that the United States has expanded the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, also known as Papahānaumokuākea, to 582,578 square miles (1.5 million square kilometers).

marine protected area expansion in Hawaiipresident Obama marine protected area of HawaiiHONOLULU—

Source: Pew Applauds Expansion of Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

shark school conservation

Sharks: 21 Fast Facts About Conservation and Global Threats | Pew

  • Sharks play a vital role in marine ecosystems, helping to maintain a balance that’s critical for commercially important fisheries. But they are also one of the most misunderstood creatures in the world’s oceans — the odds of experiencing a shark attack are just 1 in 11.5 million.
  • Learn more about the global threat posed by the shark fin trade, as well as conservation efforts including shark sanctuaries in Palau, the Maldives, Honduras, The Bahamas, the Marshall Islands, Tokelau.

For more information, visit: http://www.pewenvironment.org/sharks

shark school conservation

shark fins for soup

Shark Crimes: How DNA Helps Fight Fin Trade


Humans kill some 100 million sharks annually, largely for shark fin soup. Some shark species, like the oceanic whitetip, have declined up to 99 percent.

To find out how new trade restrictions are affecting the global shark fin trade, shark geneticist Demian Chapman is using DNA to get an accurate picture of how they’re caught and traded, as well as the role they play in our oceans.

“The same techniques that are used for solving crimes,” said Chapman, a Pew marine fellow, “are the exact same ones we use to solve crimes involving wildlife.”

Click here for more information on Chapman’s shark work.

shark fishing nets

Read about PEW fighting for Sharks

shark fins

The Shark Fin Trade Elimination Act of 2016

114th CONGRESS
  2d Session
                                S. 3095

        To prohibit sale of shark fins, and for other purposes.
_______________________________________________________________________

                   IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

                             June 23, 2016

 Mr. Booker (for himself, Mrs. Capito, Mr. Blumenthal, Mr. McCain, Ms. 
 Cantwell, and Ms. Murkowski) introduced the following bill; which was 
  read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
                             Transportation
_______________________________________________________________________

                                 A BILL

        To prohibit sale of shark fins, and for other purposes.

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Shark Fin Trade Elimination Act of 
2016''.

SEC. 2. PROHIBITION ON SALE OF SHARK FINS.

    (a) Prohibition.--Except as provided in section 3, no person shall 
possess, trade, distribute, ship, transport, offer for sale, sell, 
purchase, import, or export shark fins or products containing shark 
fins.
    (b) Penalty.--For purposes of section 308(a) of the Magnuson-
Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1858(a)), a 
violation of this section shall be treated as an act prohibited by 
section 307 of that Act (16 U.S.C. 1857).

SEC. 3. EXCEPTIONS.

    A person may possess a shark fin that was taken lawfully under a 
State, territorial, or Federal license or permit to take or land 
sharks, if the shark fin is separated from the shark in a manner 
consistent with the license or permit and is--
            (1) destroyed or discarded;
            (2) retained by the license or permit holder for a 
        noncommercial purpose;
            (3) used for noncommercial subsistence purposes in 
        accordance with State or territorial law; or
            (4) used solely for display or research purposes by a 
        museum, college, or university, or other person under a State 
        or Federal permit to conduct noncommercial scientific research.

SEC. 4. DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:
            (1) Import.--The term ``import'' has the same meaning that 
        term has under section 3 of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery 
        Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1802).
            (2) Shark.--The term ``shark''--
                    (A) except as provided in subparagraph (B), means 
                any species of the subclass Elasmobranchii; and
                    (B) does not include--
                            (i) any stock of the species Mustelus canis 
                        (smooth dogfish) or Squalus acanthias (spiny 
                        dogfish) which is managed pursuant to a fishery 
                        management plan prepared under section 303 of 
                        the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and 
                        Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1853); or
                            (ii) any species in the superorder Batoidea 
                        that is managed pursuant to a fishery 
                        management plan prepared under section 303 of 
                        the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and 
                        Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1853).
            (3) Shark fin.--The term ``shark fin'' means the raw, 
        dried, or otherwise processed detached fin of a shark, or the 
        raw, dried, or otherwise processed detached tail of a shark.

SEC. 5. STATE AUTHORITY.

    Nothing in this Act may be construed to preclude, deny, or limit 
any right of a State or territory to adopt or enforce any regulation or 
standard that is more stringent than a regulation or standard in effect 
under this Act.

gdlr_rp

shark fins

save the grouper

Nassau Grouper: Bahamas National Tust PSA

Bahamas National Trust Fact Sheet: Nassau Grouper

NASSAU GROUPER: SCIENTIFIC NAME
Epinephelus striatus


DESCRIPTION
The Nassau Grouper belongs to the Seabass family of fish. All Seabass have strong, stout bodies and large mouths. Five dark brown bands, a black saddle-like spot near the tail fin, and a dark streak running from its nose through its eye are features that distinguish the Nassau Grouper from other groupers. The dorsal fin is notched between for ward spines. The Nassau Grouper can change colour from pale to almost black to match its surroundings. It can grow to 1 to 2 feet long and can reach a maximum of 4 feet and weigh fifteen pounds or more. Nassau Groupers may live for more than 25 years. The Nassau Grouper is a valuable fisheries re source and an important part of the coral reef community. The grouper is usually found in caves, crevices and cracks of the reef. It is rarely found deeper than 90 feet. This fi sh often rests on the sea bottom, blending with its surroundings. Nassau groupers are found through out the Caribbean Sea.

DIET
Nassau Groupers, like most Seabass are predators. They sit camouflaged out side the openings of caves, and wait for unsuspecting prey to swim by. They see well without much light, and often hunt at dawn and dusk when other fi sh are looking for shelter or waking up. Groupers eat many animals such as lobster, crab, octopus and shrimp.

REPRODUCTION
Groupers spawn around the full moon during late December or early January after the seawater has begun to cool. They gather around banks by the thousands to spawn. Around this time they change colour: black on top and white on its belly. Spawning takes place at sunset when males and females move from the shallows and into deep water. Here they rise quickly to the surface in small groups releasing eggs and milt into the open sea. Males are often seen nudging the bellies of females as both sexes swim rapidly toward the surface. Spawning continues for several days following the occurrence of the full moon. Nassau grouper eggs are clear, less than 1 millimetre in diameter and they are buoyant. After they are fertilized they are carried away from the reef by the wind and tide. Within 20 – 45 hours baby fish called larvae hatch from these tiny eggs. After a month at sea, the ocean currents return the larvae to the reef. Of the million or so eggs released by each female, less than 1% will live and grow into adults. Nassau Groupers can begin life as a female and then switch to male. Change can hap pen at any time after maturity – when they reach 10 to 24 inches long and 5 – 6 years old. Male groupers are larger and thus targeted by fishermen. This can result in a shortage of sperm. In response to heavy fi sh ing pressure resulting in limited sperm, it is possible that a female may change to a male before reproducing as a female. In some groupers, there is no sex change.

VALUE
There is a strong local market for the Nassau Grouper. Traditional dishes such as Boiled fish and Grouper fingers, keep the Nassau Grouper in high demand. The fishing of Groupers provides hundreds of thousands of dollars in income to fishermen around The Bahamas.

THREATS
Nassau grouper is eaten by barracudas, lizard fish, dolphins, sharks and other large predators of the reef community. But the predators that have the biggest impact on the grouper population are humans. People are fishing groupers before they can grow to maturity and reproduce. Sex change may also cause a problem. In undisturbed areas there are usually equal numbers of male and females. In heavily fished areas there are often three or more times more females than males. This means many eggs will not be fertilized during spawning. Other threats include, habitat destruction, coral breakage from divers, siltation from construction, runoff from logging and agriculture, dredging, sewage, oil spills and other contaminants that harm coral reefs where Nassau Groupers live.

CONSERVATION
There are a number of measures that can be taken to protect and manage the Nassau grouper:

  • Establish Marine parks and Reserves where the fi shing of grouper is prohibited.
  • Establish a minimum harvestable size limit and enforce the minimum legal size for a grouper which is 3 pounds.
  • Protect spawning aggregation sites – because of fishing at these sites, groupers are susceptible to overfishing.
  • Develop alternative fishing strategies: encourage fishermen to catch other species of fish.
  • Support the Closed Season for Grouper during the designated dates (December – February).

For a downloadable PDF version of the fact sheet, visit the Bahamas National Trust’s website.  The Bahamas National Trust Co-hosts Caribbean Shark Conservation Symposium: Expanded regional shark protections discussed during meeting

save the grouper

say no to shark fin soup

Identifying Shark Fins

Take a look at this shark fin identification guide that was published by PEW in collaboration with Stony Brook University.

Download the publication here

 

tiger shark diving on the reefs of tiger beach

Sharks Play Critical Role in Ocean Food Web | Pew

As apex predators, tiger sharks and other shark species play a critical role in maintaining the health of ocean ecosystems.

But shark populations are decreasing around the world, due to overfishing and the high demand for shark fin soup. When their numbers plummet, it can have a chain reaction on ocean food webs, impacting seabirds and commercially important fish species, such as tuna and jacks. This is only one example of how removing sharks from the marine environment may have other negative effects that spread through the food web.

Learn more at http://www.pewenvironment.org/sharks

 

tiger shark diving on the reefs of tiger beach

oceanic whitetip sharks cat island bahamas shark diving

Follow the Oceanic Whitetips | Pew

Follow the Oceanic Whitetips

In July 2011, The Bahamas declared a shark sanctuary in its Exclusive Economic Zone. Two months earlier, scientists had tagged 12 oceanic whiteips around The Bahamas and created an animation that tracked the movement of three of those sharks. The scientists found that although they are highly migratory, oceanic whitetips spent most of their time within the sanctuary. Sanctuaries are an important refuge for sharks.

Learn more: http://www.pewenvironment.org/sharks.

Follow the Oceanic Whitetips

oceanic whitetips shark research group